Межрегиональная общественная благотворительная организация 'Вера, Надежда, Любовь'
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Contact information

27-A, Kirova St., Pyatigorsk
Tel/fax: (8793) 97-43-24,
e-mail: vnl@kmv.ru, idp@kmv.ru

Яндекс цитирования

HIV is a human immune deficit virus, influencing immune system, which brings AIDS development (Acquired immune deficit syndrome) - deadly dangerous disease destructing our immunity.  HIV can weaken immune system to the state when in an organism diseases begin to develop, which are usually overcome by healthy immune system.
Achieving person’s organism HIV weakens immune system attacking specific cells intended for struggle with infections. In the course of time HIV destroys such a quantity of cells that organism cannot protect itself from some kinds of cancer, viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites.
AIDS diagnosis is usually given in a few years after receiving HIV infection, when one or several very serious diseases develop to a person.
HIV and AIDS is not one and the same thing. HIV is the virus heavily influencing immune system and AIDS is a complex of diseases based on weakened immunity and appearing with HIV-positive person.

How does HIV infection appear?

There are several ways of transmitting HIV- infection:

  • unsafe sexual act (without condom);
  • common usage of syringe, needle and another injection equipment;
  • usage of not sterile instruments for tattoo and piercing;
  • usage of another person’s shaving items, tooth brushes, where blood remained;
  • transmission of the virus from HIV-positive mother to a child in the period of pregnancy, labor and breast feeding.
HIV-infection source is an infected person in any stage of the disease including the period of incubation.
Dominating mechanism of virus transmission is transmission of it by sexual way. It is stipulated by high concentration of virus in sperm and vaginal secret of the infected persons.
Human Immune Deficit Virus is transmitted during transfusion of the infected whole blood and products made of it.

Relatively rare but possible variant of getting infection is transplantation of organs, tissues and artificial insemination of women.
Transmission of HIV by air, food, water, through arthropod parasites ways is not proved.
“Syringe” transmission of HIV is rather widely spread among drug addicts taking psychoactive substances in intravenous way.

How is HIV not transmitted?

  • while shaking hands or hugs;
  • through sweat or tears;
  • during cough and sneeze;
  • while using common dishes or linen;
  • while using common bath and toilet;
  • during joint sport activities
  • in public transport;
  • through animals or in the process of insect bites;
  • during kiss / through saliva.

HIV is not transmitted during kiss as concentration of the virus in saliva is not enough for getting infection. Within the whole period of AIDS/HIV research there have not been data on even one case of getting infection by this way.
HIV is transmitted through blood, sperm, vaginal secretion and mother’s milk, but NOT through other liquids of the organism (such as saliva, sweat, tears, urine) and faeces.

Which are HIV- infection symptoms?

In most cases beginning of HIV-infection goes absolutely without any symptoms. AIDS diagnosis is usually given in a few years after receiving HIV infection, when one or several very serious diseases develop to a person. Many years can go before a person will notice any changes in his health, nevertheless within this period he/she can infect his/her partner.
The fact of getting infection after contact with virus can be registered in particular period of time: from 25 days to 3 months (in some cases to 6 months) with the help of a special blood test- analysis, which reveals antibodies to virus. Period between getting of the virus into organism and formation of antibodies to it in blood is called “window period”.

Signs of HIV-infection on different stages

Incubation stage - period from the moment of getting infection to appearance of organism reaction in the form of clinic symptoms of acute infection and / or working out of antibodies. Continuity of the period concludes from 3 weeks to 3 months, in single cases it may last to 1 year.

Stage of the first symptoms - can go in several forms:

  • without symptoms;
  • heavy HIV-infection without second / aftereffect diseases;
  • heavy HIV- infection with aftereffect diseases.

Latent stage - time period of the stage may vary from 2-3 to 20 and more years, in general- 6-7 years. Within the period gradual reducing of immunity is marked.
After- effect diseases stage - aftereffect (opportunistic) diseases develop basing on immunity deficit.
Terminal stage (AIDS) - aftereffect diseases of a patient get irresistible character. Even antivirus therapy conducted in adequate way and therapy of the after- effect diseases are not effective and the sick person dies within several months.

HIV check-up
The only way to know if a person has got HIV is to undergo testing.

Why one should undergo HIV- testing?

  • without relevant therapy infections, transmitted by sexual way and especially HIV-infection bring serious aftereffects for one’s health;
  • early diagnostics and in-time therapy allow to keep health;
  • you will be sure that you will not transmit HIV to your beloved or your child;
  • HIV and AIDS testing do not take much time and in some clinics it is conducted free of charge (in accordance with the art.4 Federal Law #38-FZ of March 30 1995 “On warning of disease caused by immune deficit virus (HIV-infection) spread in Russian Federation” federal bodies guarantee accessibility of medical acknowledgment for HIV-infection).

Can HIV/AIDS be cured?

Though there are no medicines against AIDS yet, existing anti-retrovirus therapy allows to a great extent to reduce tempos of disease development and delay AIDS symptoms appearance. Early therapy can change a lot. All the time new achievements in the field of HIV/AIDS treatment appear. Even now there are medicines which allow people having HIV to live long and healthy life. That is why positive result of the blood analysis for HIV does not mean sentence condemn to death.

Where one can undergo testing for HIV?

Testing is free and can be done in any AIDS-center. In infection hospitals, some policlinics there are rooms for anonymous testing for HIV.

How one can avoid infection?

It is rather easy to understand the principles underlying HIV preventive measures. The virus does not live outside the liquids of a person’s organism, is not transmitted in everyday contacts. And everyone has possibility to protect oneself from HIV and to help his/her closest people.
As in the world the main quantity of getting HIV-infection cases is done by sexual way and because of drugs injections. It means in the process of behavior which a person can change and control by his own will in the majority of cases.



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